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MRS Bulletin | April 2008
Harnessing Materials for Energy

MRS Bulletin | April 2008 <br>Harnessing Materials for Energy Image SPECIAL ISSUE
Volume 33, No. 4

Energy Project Organizing Committee: V.S. Arunachalam, G.W. Crabtree, D.S. Ginley, C.J. Humphreys, K.N. Ishihara, K.C. Taylor, and R. Tongia

The MRS Bulletin special expanded issue, “Harnessing Materials for Energy,” focuses on the most important materials research challenges that need to be addressed to move toward secure, affordable, and environmentally sustainable energy to meet the world’s accelerating energy needs. The issue follows the full energy chain including production, storage, distribution, use, and efficiency. The articles are designed to present an objective and global view of the energy challenges within each energy sector and the promising transformational materials research directions for meeting these challenges as far into the future as is scientifically feasible to consider (targeting 10-, 25-, and 50-year outlooks).

This issue was launched at the 2008 MRS Spring Meeting with an Energy Forum featuring presentations by leading experts in the field.  We invite you to listen to audio recordings of those presentations.

Energy LANDSCAPE

PREFACE

Harnessing Materials for Energy
V.S. Arunachalam and E.L. Fleischer

Illustration of the Energy Landscape

INTRODUCTION The Global Energy Landscape and Materials Innovation
V.S. Arunachalam and E.L. Fleischer
AUTHORS Biographies
The Economics of Energy Options
Lester B. Lave

Sustainability and Energy Conversions
Sally M. Benson and Franklin M. Orr, Jr

and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage
Sally M. Benson and Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

Energy RESOURCES
Materials Challenges in Advanced Coal Conversion Technologies
Cynthia A. Powell and Bryan Morreale

Factors That Will Influence Oil and Gas Supply and Demand in the 21st Century
Stephen A. Holditch and Russell R. Chianelli

Methane Hydrates: An Abundance of Clean Energy?
Bhakta B. Rath

Challenges in Materials Research for Sustainable Nuclear Energy
Baldev Raj, M. Vijayalakshmi, P.R. Vasudeva Rao, and K. Bhanu Sankara Rao

with Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Environmental Impact
Rodney C. Ewing

and Preventing Nuclear Weapon Proliferation as Nuclear Power Expands
Siegfried S. Hecker

Materials Challenges in Present and Future Wind Energy
Brian Hayman, Jakob Wedel-Heinen, and Povl Br°ndsted

Solar Energy Conversion Toward 1 Terawatt
David Ginley, Martin A. Green, and Reuben Collins

with Another Pathway to Large-Scale Power Generation: Concentrating Solar Power
Mark Mehos,

Thermoelectrics: Direct Solar Thermal Energy Conversion
Terry Tritt, Harald B÷ttner, and Lidong Chen,

Off-Grid Solar for Rural Development
Wole Soboyejo and Roger Taylor

and The 3 GW Initiative
Tim Palucka

Bioenergy Research Needs for Heat, Electricity, and Liquid Fuels
Alexander E. Farrell and Anand R. Gopal

with Cellulosic Ethanol: A Unique Sustainable Liquid Transportation Fuel
Charles E. Wyman,

and Engineered and Artificial Photosynthesis: Human Ingenuity Enters the Game (to produce H2, CH4, alcohol)
Devens Gust, David Kramer, Ana Moore, Tom Moore, Wim Vermaas

Hydropower, Geothermal, and Ocean Energy
Ralph E.H. Sims
Energy CARRIERS, STORAGE & TRANSFORMATION

The Electric Power Grid: Today and Tomorrow
Massoud Amin and John Stringer

and Micropower Materials Development for Wireless Sensor Networks
Dan Steingart, Shad Roundy, Paul K. Wright, and James W. Evans

Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage
M. Stanley Whittingham (Binghamton University, U.S.)

and Electrical Energy Storage Using Flywheels
M. Stanley Whittingham

The Hydrogen Fuel Alternative
George W. Crabtree and Mildred S. Dresselhaus
Energy USE & EFFICIENCY

Road Transportation Vehicles -- Hybrids, Electric Vehicles, Lighweighting
Joseph A. Carpenter, Jr., Jerry Gibbs, Ahmad A. Pesaran, and Kenneth Kelly

with Aviation
Dipankar Banerjee

Increasing Building Energy Efficiency Through Advances in Materials
Ron Judkoff

Including Environmental Performance Enters Construction Materials
Peter Bonfield

and A Super-Green Factory: The Sharp Kameyama Plant
Tetsuo Kusakabe

Solid-State Lighting
Colin J. Humphreys
Reducing Industrial Energy Use and CO2 Emissions: The Role of Materials Science
Dolf Gielen, John Newman, and Martin Patel