Thermodynamics developed without serious mistake.
- 1798. Thompson, from cannon-boring, realized that work can
be converted in to heat.
- 1824. Carnot idealized a reversible engine as a
cycle between two heat reservoirs -- defined only by their temperature.
- 1842 & 1847. Mayer & Helmholtz reformulated the
conservation of energy, including heat with work.
First Law of Thermo.
- 1843-47. Joule experimentally established equivalence
of work and energy.
- 1848. Kelvin defined absolute scale of temperature, based on
Carnot cycle. (K)
- 1850; 1865. Clausius "gave" thermo laws
It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a cycle and
produces no effect other than the transfer of heat from a
lower-temperature body to a higher-temperature body.
- The energy of the universe is constant.
entropy of the universe ⇒ maximum.
- 1875. Gibbs extended thermodynamics to heterogeneous system
and chemical reactions.
The advent of quantum mechanics lead to statistical mechanics that
linked QM to thermodynamics.
To cite this page:
Development of Thermodynamics
[Friday, 23-Mar-2018 12:29:43 EDT]
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Thursday, 03-Sep-2015 14:38:52 EDT