Slow Development of Batteries

1859Invention of the lead acid batteryPlante (France)
1899Invention of the nickel-cadmium batteryJungner (Sweden)
1901Invention of the nickel-iron battery ("too good") Edison (USA)
1947Sealing the nickel-cadmium battery Neumann (France)
mid 1960Development of primary alkaline batteryUnion Carbide (USA)
mid 1970Development of valve regulated lead acid battery
1990Commercialization nickel-metal hydride battery
1992Commercialization reusable alkaline battery Kordesch (Canada)
1999Commercialization lithium-ion polymer battery
200xAnticipated volume production of proton exchange membrane fuel cell