Guide to Scientific Referencing

  • Books and Journals
  • Internet
  • Comics
  • Referencing books and popular journals. Examples:

    1. Eric Partride, Usage and Abusage: A Guide to Good English, 6th ed. (Hamish Hamilton, London, 1965), p. 357.
    2. Excepted from The Star Thrower by Loren Eiseley (Random House, New York 1978), pp. 221-223.
    3. Based on an illustration in Barbara E. Brown and John C. Ogden, "Coral Bleaching," Scientific American (January 1993), p. 144.

    NOTES on book and popular journal references:

    1. There are commas between author and book title and, if necessary, edition.
    2. The book/journal title is in italics (if word processor permits).
    3. A period terminates the reference.
    4. For books, the publisher, city, and year of publication -- separated by commas -- are in parentheses. No comma precedes the left parenthesis. The right parenthesis is followed by either a period or a comma and relevant page(s). [A single page is denoted by "p."; more than one page by "pp.".]
    5. For multiply referencing same work, see bottom of the page of common abbreviations.

    Referencing scientific journals. Examples:

    1. Francis L. W. Ratnicks, and P. Kirk Visscher, "Worker Policies in the Honeybee," Nature 342, 796-797 (1989).
    2. Adapted from Figure 5 in Apostolos P. Georgopoulos, et al., "Mental Rotation of the Neuronal Population Vector," Science 243, 234-236 (1989).

    NOTES on scientific journal references:

    Referencing the internet.

    Citation Style for Electronic Documents

    The fundamental problem with electronic documents is that they are usually not permanently archived. Accordingly any reference must acknowledge when the link was made. To date no unique style has emerged. The examples below are one possible style which seems reasonable. See also MLA Style, especially "Documenting Sources from the World Wide Web."

    1. Individual works

      Author/editor. (Year). Title (edition), [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available: Supplier/Database identifier or number [Access date].

      Author/editor. (Year). Title (edition), [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date].

      Examples:

      Oxford English dictionary computer file: On compact disc (2nd ed.), [CD-ROM]. (1992). Available: Oxford UP [1995, May 27].

      T. J. Pritzker (No date). An Early fragment from central Nepal [Online]. Available: http://www.ingress.com/~astanart/pritzker/pritzker.html [1995, June 8].
      => Write "No date" when the electronic publication date is not available.
      => When citing information retrieved on the WWW, don't repeat the protocol (HTTP, FTP, etc.) after "Available" since that is stated in the URL.
       

    2. Parts of Work

      Author/editor. (Year). Title. In Source (edition), [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available: Supplier/Database identifier or number [Access date].

      Author/editor. (Year). Title. In Source (edition), [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date].

      Examples:

      Bosnia and Hercegovina. (1995). In Academic American Encyclopedia [Online]. Available: Dow Jones News Retrieval Service/ENCYC [1995, June 5].
      => This is an article from an encyclopedia with no author given.
       
      R. T. Daniel (1995). The history of Western music. In Britannica online: Macropaedia [Online]. Available: http://www.eb.com:180/cgi-bin/g:- DocF=macro/5004/45/0.html [1995, June 14].
      => When citing information retrieved on the WWW, don't repeat the protocol (HTTP) after "Available" since that is stated in the URL.
      => Note: hyphenation after g/:
       
    3. Discussion List Messages

      Author. (Year, Month day). Subject of message. Discussion List [Type of medium]. Available E-mail: Discussion list@e-mail address [Access date].

      Author. (Year, Month day). Subject of message. Discussion List [Type of medium]. Available E-mail: LISTSERV@e-mail address/Get [Access date].

      Examples:

      RRECOME. (1995, April 1). Top ten rules of film criticism. Discussions on All Forms of Cinema [Online]. Available E-mail: CINEMA-L@american.edu [1995, April 1].
      => Author's login name, in uppercase, is given as the first element.

      Discussions on All Forms of Cinema [Online]. Available E-mail: LISTSERV@american.edu/Get cinema-llog9504A [1995, August 1].
      => Reference is obtained by searching the list's archive.
       

    4. E-mail: Sender (Sender's E-mail address). (Year, Month day). Subject of Message. E-mail to recipient (Recipient's E-mail address)

      Examples:

      Martha Day (MDAY@sage.uvm.edu). (1995, July 30). Review of film Bad Lieutenant. E-mail to Xia Li (XLI@moose.uvm.edu).

    Referencing comics.