# Casting Copy

All calculations are made in terms of single-column PRL lines; whenever a rule gives a line equivalent for a number of characters (letters, numerals, and spaces ), it is to be understood that a partial PRL line actually counts as a full line.
1. The title takes four lines for the first 93 characters and two lines for each additional 93.

2. Bylines take 2 lines for each 105 characters of an author-name group and 2 lines for each 105 characters of the corresponding address(es); 2 lines separate institutional groups; For bylines, no more than 55 lines are counted, provided all names are grouped together with all institutions listed below.

3. The receipt date (and surrounding space) takes six lines.

4. The abstract takes two lines for each 100 characters; two lines separate it from the receipt date, and two more lines separate it from the PACS numbers. An abstract may contain a maximum of 600 characters including spaces.

5. The listing of PACS numbers (and space below) is counted as 4 lines.

6. For the text of the manuscript, the average number of characters (letters and spaces) per manuscript line is estimated and converted to the number of PRL one-column lines by the formula:

```No. characters/avg. manuscript line
----------------------------------- X No. manuscript lines = No. PRL lines
No. characters/avg. PRL line(=55)
```

Note: In-line mathematics of more than 25 characters will be treated as displayed material and will be counted as such.

7. A short displayed equation (less than 34 characters, excluding equation number; 40 if there is no equation number) takes 2.5 lines; build-up fractions take 3 lines, with parentheses 4 lines; matrices generally take 2-3 lines per row , depending on complexity. When the equation has both superscripts and subscripts another 1/2 line is added. A long equation, typed across two columns, takes double these amounts. Where there are a number of two-column equations, intervening short equations may also be given two-column space.

Note: Short lines or groups of several lines preceding, following, and between equations are included in the equation count.

8. Each reference takes one line for every 56 characters. Also, two lines separate the text and the references.

9. Afigure that can be reduced to one-column width takes 6 lines per inch of reduced height; if it requres greater width, it takes 12 lines per inch of reduced height.

A few words regarding figures. Figures are sized (reduced dimensions calculated) on the basis of their content and detail. The size of lettering should be chosen with this in mind. Specifically, choose a lettering size such that when the figure is reduced to approximately the minimum size that will show the details adequately, the smallest on-line (not subscript or superscript) capital letters or numerals will have a reduced size in the range 2.0-2.5 mm, and be sure that lower-case letters and subscripts and superscripts, if any, are not grossly different in size from the capitals. Also choose a line weight such that small open symbols and letters will not fill in. Figures should be planned to be 3 3/8 inches wide (single column) or 4.5-7 inches wide (greater than one column).

10. Each figure caption takes one line for each 56 characters. Also, there is one line between a figure and its caption, and two lines between text and figure or caption (double these amounts if the figure requires greater than one-column width).

11. Each line (including double rules) in a table becomes one or two lines for a table small and simple enough to be typed--one if the table fits into one column (56 characters including 3 spaces between columns of the table itself), two if it is wider. Two lines in each column separate text from a table or caption. A table caption is counted as one line for each 56 characters. Large or complex tables should be calculated (as well as prepared and submitted) as if these were figures.