Setting the Tone
(style or manner of expression)
- Identify your audience; they must accept you.
Structure your material: keep to time; aptly summarize content
Know your stuff:
accurate well-phrased descriptions ⇒ knowledgeable speaker.
- Deliver talk with articulation, eye contact, enthusiasm.
- Apt Summary delivers Take-Home Message (THM).
Structure of presentation
- Title → give information in a nutshell
- Context and perspective: zooming in
- Start with general principle, then focus in on topic:
(1) tells audience relevance to broader vision;
(2) defines intellectual borders of talk.
- Telling a story
- Turns collection of facts into exciting/interesting story.
- Story should have one focus: the take-home message.
- Formulation and Argumentation
- Talk proceeds as a logical unfolding of information.
- Speech reflects clear thought; avoid jargon.
- Pointing out limits of explanation enhances credibility.
- Conclusion: brief and to the point
- Zooming out to major scientific idea at the start.
- Conclusion makes final impression on your audience.
- Conclusion should be firm, decisive, concise and coherent.
- Only talk-home message may be remembered.
- Articulation and eye contact are most important.
- Take time to articulate every word of each sentence clearly.
- Voice control has several interrelated properties:
sound (e.g., accent), volume, speed and rhythm.
- Stress at sentence's end where audience expects new info.
- Nervous, hurried speech leads to inaccurate articulation.
- Monotony is greatest enemy to maintaining interest.
- Slowing down will solve most speakers' problems.
- Eye contact ensures you talk to listeners, not at them.
- Genuine enthusiasm is 90% of a speaker's success.
- Answering questions.
- Discourage impulsive ad hoc questions that deflect focus.
- But question may reveal omitted essential info.
- A clarifying question can get talk back on track.
- Always answer questions briefly and to the point.
- Useful to repeat question, rephrasing it for audience clarity.
- Always a good idea to be polite and gracious.
- Three devices can set perspective.
- Good title sets scope of the presentation.
- "Zoom in" to the topic during the introductory segment of the
presentation and "zoom out" near its end.
- Decide on the underlying question talk addresses;
divide into an organized array of subquestions;
present answers to these questions, leading to THM.
- Talk focuses on single issue, tailored to audience.
- Avoid sidetracking and backtracking.
If wander away, clearly reposition yourself on the track.
- Talk must delineate a clear, logical line of thought.
- Avoid jargon; prepare clear explanations of science.
- Presentation ends with clear, concise THM. Stop!
To cite this page:
Setting the tone
[Saturday, 16-Dec-2017 23:18:20 EST]
Edited by: email@example.com on
Wednesday, 02-Apr-2008 10:43:02 EDT