Managing Emphasis: New at the End

Managing Emphasis: New at the End

Emphasis is achieved by managing the flow of ideas thusly:

  1. Begin sentence by consistently organizing your subject/topics around a few central characters or concepts
  2. Quickly close that subject with a precise verb expressing action.
  3. Then important new information is at the end of the sentence.

A charge of gross violation of academic responsibility is required for a Board of Trustees to dismiss a tenured faculty member for cause, and an elaborate hearing procedure with a prior statement of charges is provided for before a tenured faculty member may be dismissed for cause, in most States.

[The next two examples build a climactic rhythm.]

In most States, before a Board of Trustees may dismiss a tenured faculty member for cause, it must charge him [!] with a gross violation of academic responsibility and provide him [!] with a statement of charges and an elaborate hearing.

In most States, established procedures restrict how a Board of Trustees may dismiss a tenured faculty member for gross violation of academic responsibility. That faculty member must be (1) provided with a statement of charge and (2) judged in an elaborate procedure.

Managing New Technical Terms.

The effects of calcium blockers in the control of cardiac irregularity can be seen through an understanding of the role of calcium in the activation of muscle groups. The regulatory proteins actin, myosin, tropomyosin and troponin make up the sarcomere, the basic unit of muscle contraction. The thick filament is made up of ATPase, an energy-producing protein myosin, while actin, tropomyosin, and troponin make up the thin filament.

When muscles contract, they need calcium. We must therefore understand how calcium influences muscle contraction in order to understand how cardiac irregularity is controlled by drugs called calcium blockers. The basic unit of muscle contraction is the sarcomere. It has two filaments, one thin and one thick, consisting of proteins that regulate contraction. Muscles contract when a protein in the thin filament, actin, interacts with another protein in the thick filament, an energy-producing or ATPase protein called myosin.

Information is explicit; adjective info into statement.
Most important, technical terms -- unfamiliar to reader -- are moved from beginning to the end, e.g., calcium blockers.

When readers see a technical term for the first time, they can grasp more easily if it appears after being defined: the end.

Summary of reasons for putting new material at the end of the sentence.

=>It is toward the end of a sentence that a reader can best understand long and complex units of information.
=>It is at the end of a sentence that a reader can best understand new information, particularly unfamiliar technical words.
=>It is at the end of an introductory sentence in particular that readers note those important concepts that your next several sentences will develop.

Three tactics for managing endings.

  1. Trim the ending
  2. Sociobiologists now make the provocative claim that our genes control our social behavior in the way we act in situations we find around us every day.

    Sociobiologists now make the provocative claim that our genes control our social behavior.

  3. Shift less important information to the left.
  4. No one can explain why the first primeval superatom exploded and thereby created the universe in a few words.

    No one can explain in a few words why that first primeval superatom exploded and thereby created the universe.

    Also avoid anticlimactic endings.

    Opportunities are good at the graduate level, it must be remembered.

    It must be remembered that opportunities at the graduate level are good.

  5. Shift important information to the right.
  6. Moving the important information to the end of the sentence is another way to manage the flow of ideas.

    Another way you can manage the flow of ideas is to move the most important information to the end of the sentence.

    A discovery that will change the very foundation of our understandings of ourselves and our place in the scheme of things is imminent.

    A discovery is imminent that will change the very foundation of our understandings of ourselves and our place in the scheme of things.

    Devices -- which, if used sparingly, spice up your prose.


     

    1. Passives -- to get topics and stress right.
    2. Sociobiologists make the provocative claim that our genes determine our social behavior. Our genes ...

      Sociobiologists make the provocative claim that our social behavior is determined by our genes. Our genes ...

    3. There
    4. A few grammatical patterns add weight to the end of the sentence. *There* are a few grammatical patterns that add weight to the end of the sentence.

    5. What-Shift
    6. This country needs a monetary policy that will end the violent fluctuations in the money supply, unemployment, and inflation.

      *What* this country needs is a monetary policy that will end the violent fluctuations in the money supply, unemployment, and inflation.

      *What* we need is a monetary policy that will end the wild fluctuations in the money supply, unemployment, and high rates of inflation.
       

    7. It-Shift
    8.  - shift long and complex introductory clause that would have been the subject to a position after the verb.

       That domestic oil prices must eventually rise to the level set by OPEC once seemed inevitable.

       *It* once seem inevitable that domestic oil prices must eventually rise to the level set by OPEC

       - simultaneously select and emphasize a topic and throw added weight on the stress.

       In 1933 this country experienced a depression that almost wrecked our democratic system of government.

       *It was in 1933 that this country experienced a depression that almost wrecked our democratic system of government.

       

    9. Not only X, but Y, (as well)
    10. The point is to highlight our success, not to emphasize our failures.

      The objective is not to emphasize our failures but to highlight our success.

      We must clarify these issues and develop trust.

      We must not only clarify these issues, but develop trust as well.


To cite this page:
Managing Emphasis: New at the End
<http://www.physics.ohio-state.edu/~wilkins/writing/Handouts/VGs/emphasis.html>
[Thursday, 14-Dec-2017 17:39:48 EST]
Edited by: wilkins@mps.ohio-state.edu on Wednesday, 08-Feb-2006 11:25:37 EST