Supplementary Information for "Converting currencies in the Old World"
Nature, V411, 437

 
Table 1 Weight systems between the Third and First Millennium BC

Standard Weight Systems

Mass.

Talents

Minas

Shekels

Equivalences

Weights

Syrian talent

Kg.

28.200

    

mina

g.

470 x 60

    

Hittite shekel (HS)

g.

11.75

x 40

x 2400

5/4 of 9.4

3/2 of 7.83

12/7 de 6.84

9/5 of 6.58

(HS) 2+2=5 (US-EK)

(HS) 2=2+1 (EKS)

(HS) 5+2=10+2 (IS)

(HS) 5=5+2+2 (AS)

Ugaritic shekel (US)

g.

9.4

x 50

x 3000

7/10 of 13.68

3/4 of 12.83

4/5 of 11.75

11/10 of 8.55

6/5 of 7.83

11/8 of 6.84

10/7 of 6.58

(US) 10=5+2 (DS)

(US) 2+2=2+1 (ED)

(US) 5=2+2 (HS)

(US) 10=10+1 (MS)

(US) 5=5+1 (EKS)

(US) 5+2=10 (IS)

(US) 5+2=10 (AS)

Egyptian kdt

(Dynasty XVIII...) (EK)

g.

9.4

 

x 3000

7/10 of 13.68

3/4 of 12.83

4/5 of 11.75

11/10 of 8.55

6/5 of 7.83

10/7 of 6.58

(EK) 10=5+2 (DS)

(EK) 2+2=2+1 (ED)

(EK) 5=2+2 (HS)

(EK) 10=10+1 (MS)

(EK) 5=5+1 (EKS)

(EK) 5+2=10 (IS)

Eblaite-Carcemish shekel (EKS)

g.

7.83

x 60

x 3600

4/7 of 13.68

8/13 of 12.83

2/3 of 11.75

5/6 of 9.4

12/13 of 8.55

8/7 of 6.84

(EKS) 5+2=2+2 (DS)

(EKS) 10+2+1=5+2+ (ED)

(EKS) 2+1=2 (HS)

(EKS) 5+1=5 (US-EK)

(EKS) 10+2+1=10+2 (MS)

(EKS) 5+2=5+2+1 (IS)

Mesopotamian talent

Kg.

30.800

    

Mesopotamian mina

 

513 x 60

    

Mesopotamian shekel (MS)

g.

8.55

x 60

x 3600

10/16 of 13.68

3/2 of 12.83

10/11 of 9.4

13/12 of 7.83

5/4 of 6.84

13/10 of 6.58

(MS) 10+5+1=10 (DS)

(MS) 2=2+1 (ED)

(MS) 10+1=10 (US-EK)

(MS) 10+2=10+2+1 (EKS)

(MS) 2+2=5 (IS)

(MS) 10=10+2+1 (AS)

Egyptian gold dbn (Dynasty VI-XVII) (ED)

g.

12.8(3)

 

x 2400

15/16 of 13.68

4/3 of 9.4

2/3 of 8.55

13/8 of 7.83

2/1(15/8) of 6.84

2/1 of 6.58

(ED) 10+5+1=10+5 (DS)

(ED) 2+1=2+2 (US-EK)

(ED) 2+1=2 (MS)

(ED) 5+2+1=10+2+1 (EKS)

(ED) 1=2 (5+2+1)=(10+5) (IS)

(ED) 1=2 (AS)

Dilmun mina

g.

1368

 

x 22.5

  

Dilmun shekel (DS)

Indus "shekel" (IS)

g.

g.

13.68

6.84

 

x 2250

x 4500

16/15 of 12.83

10/7 of 9.4

16/10 of 8.55

7/4 of 7.83

2/1 of 6.84

25/12 of 6.58

(DS) 10+5=10+5+1 (ED)

(DS) 5+2=5+5 (US-EK)

(DS) 10=10+5+1 (MS)

(DS) 2+2=5+2 (EKS)

(DS) 1=2 (IS)

(DS) 10+2=10+10+5 (AS)

Ashdodite talent

Kg.

23.700

    

mina

g.

474 x 50

    

Ashdodite shekel (AsS)

g.

7.9 (7.83)

x 60

x 3000

4/7 of 13.68

8/13 of 12.83

12/3 of 11.75

5/6 of 9.4

12/13 of 8.55

6/5 of 6.58

(AsS) 5+2=2+2 (DS)

(AsS) 10+2+1=5+2+1 (ED)

(AsS) 2+1=10+2 (HS)

(AsS) 5+1=5 (US-EK)

(AsS) 10+2+1=10+2 (MS)

(AsS) 5=5+1 (AS)

Aegean talent

Kg.

31.600

    

mina

g.

480 x 65.8

    

Aegean "stater" (AS)

g.

65.8

6.58

x 72

x 4800

12/25 of 13.68

1/2 of 12.83

5/9 of 11.75

7/10 of 9.4

10/13 of 8.55

5/6 of 7.9

25/26 of 6.84

(AS) 10+10+5=10+2 (DS)

(AS) 2=1 (ED)

(AS) 5+2+2=5 (SH)

(AS) 10=5+2 (US-EK)

(AS) 10+2+1=10 (MS)

(AS) 5+1=5 (EKS)

(AS) 10+10+5+1=10+10+5 (IS)



Table 2 Two examples of the continuous conversion of a fixed weight

Source

Afghanistan

Raw material

example 1

Source

Afghanistan

Raw material

example 2

Route East-West

Lapis lazuli "ingot"

1,370 g.

Route East-West

Tin ingot

4,700 g. or 4.7 kg.

dilmun-indus "shekel"

(India-Persian Gulf)

100 "shekels"

dilmun-indus "shekel"

344 "shekels"

3.5 minas

mesopotamian shekel

(Irak)

160 shekels

100+50+10

mesopotamian shekel

550 shekels

eblaite-karkemish shekel (Syria)

175 shekels

100+50+20+5

eblaite-karkemish shekel

600 shekels

10 minas

ugaritic shekel

(Syria)

145 shekels

100+20+20+5

ugaritic shekel

500 shekels

10 minas

hittite shekel

(Turkey)

117 shekels

100+10+5+1+1

hittite shekel

400 shekels

10 minas

ashdodite shekel

(Palestine)

175 shekels

100+50+20+5

ashdodite shekel

600 shekels

10 minas

gold egyptian dbn

(Egypt)

107 dbn

100+5+1+1

gold egyptian dbn

366 dbn

egyptian kdt

(Egypt)

145 kdt

100+20+20+5

egyptian kdt

500 shekels

5 sep

aegean "stater"

(Crete-Greece)

208 "shekels"

100+100+5+2+1

aegean "stater"

71 "shekels"

4.5 M*