INSPEC Classification Code

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A0000 GENERAL
A3000 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
A4000 FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY
A5000 FLUIDS, PLASMAS AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES
A6000 CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
* A6100 Structure of liquids and solids; crystallography 
    details to be added 
* A6200 Mechanical and acoustic properties of condensed matter
    details to be added
* A6300 Lattice dynamics and crystal statistics
    detailsto be added
* A6400 Equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions
    detailsto be added

* A6500 Thermal properties of condensed matter
  * A6520 Heat capacities of liquids
  * A6540 Heat capacities of solids
     * A6540E Lattice and electronic heat capacity of solids
     * A6540H Lambda, Schottky and other anomalies in solids

  * A6550 Thermodynamic properties and entropy
  * A6570 Thermal expansion and thermomechanical effects
  * A6590 Other topics in thermal properties of condensed matter

* A6600 Transport properties of condensed matter (nonelectronic)
  * A6610 Diffusion and ionic conduction in liquids
     * A6610C Diffusion and thermal diffusion in liquids
     * A6610E Ionic conduction in liquids
  * A6620 Viscosity of liquids; diffusive momentum transport
  * A6630 Diffusion and ionic conduction in solids
     * A6630D Theory of diffusion and ionic conduction in solids 
     * A6630F Self-diffusion in solid metals, semimetals, and alloys
     * A6630H Self-diffusion and ionic conduction in solid nonmetals
     * A6630J Diffusion, migration, and displacement of impurities in
              solids
     * A6630L Diffusion, migration, and displacement of other defects in
               solids
     * A6630N Chemical interdiffusion in solids
     * A6630Q Electromigration in solids
  * A6660 Thermal conduction in nonmetallic liquids
  * A6670 Nonelectronic thermal conduction and heat-pulse propagation
             in nonmetallic solids
* A6700 Quantum fluids and solids; liquid and solid helium
    details to be added
* A6800 Surfaces and interfaces; thin films and whiskers
  * A6810 Fluid surfaces and interfaces with fluids
      details to be added
  * A6815 Liquid thin films
  * A6817 Monolayers and Langmuir-Blodgett films
  * A6820 Solid surface structure
  * A6822 Surface diffusion, segregation and interfacial compound
      formation
  * A6825 Mechanical and acoustical properties of solid surfaces and
       interfaces
  * A6830 Dynamics of solid surfaces and interface vibrations
  * A6840 Surface energy of solids; thermodynamic properties
  * A6842 Surface phase transitions and critical phenomena
  * A6845 Solid-fluid interface processes
          A6845B Sorption equilibrium at solid-fluid interfaces
          A6845D Adsorption and desorption kinetics; evaporation and
                   condensation
  * A6848 Solid-solid interfaces
  * A6855 Thin film growth, structure, and epitaxy
  * A6860 Physical properties of thin films, nonelectronic
  * A6865 Low-dimensional structures: growth, structure and
       nonelectronic properties
  * A6870 Whiskers and dendrites: growth, structure, and nonelectronic
       properties
  * A6890 Other topics in the structure and nonelectronic properties
      of surfaces and thin films
   * A6690 Other topics in nonelectronic transport properties

A7000 CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, 
   AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES 
* A7100 Electron states in condensed matter
  * A7110 Theories and models of many electron systems in condensed matter
    * A7110A Fermi liquid theory and other phenomenological models of
        many electron systems (condensed matter)
    * A7110C Electron gas, Fermi gas 
    * A7110F Lattice fermion models 
    * A7110P Fermions in reduced dimensions 
  * A7115 Methods of electronic structure calculations 
    * A7115A Ab initio calculations 
    * A7115B Plane wave calculations 
    * A7115F Atomic- and molecular-orbital methods 
    * A7115H Pseudopotential methods 
    * A7115J Self consistent field (SCF) calculations 
    * A7115M Density functional theory, local density approximation
    * A7115P General mathematical techniques in electronic structure
       calculations 
    * A7115Q Molecular dynamics calculations and other numerical
       simulations 
    * A7115R Relativistic calculations 
    * A7115T Other methods of electronic structure calculations

  * A7120 Electronic density of states determinations
     * A7120A Mathematical and computational techniques for electronic
       density of states
     * A7120C Electronic density of states of metals, semimetals, and
       alloys    
     * A7120F Electronic density of states of nonmetallic inorganics 
     * A7120H Electronic density of states of organic compounds,
       polymers, and complex systems

  * A7125 Electronic structure: 
     * A7125C Techniques of band-structure calculation (general theory,
       applications of group theory, analytic continuation, etc.)
     * A7125H Fermi surface: calculations and measurements
     * A7125J Effective mass and g-factors 
     * A7125L Electronic structure of liquid metals and semiconductors
       and their alloys
     * A7125M Electronic structure of amorphous and glassy solids
     * A7125P Electronic structure of crystalline metals and alloys
     * A7125R Electronic structure of crystalline elemental
       semiconductors
     * A7125T Electronic structure of crystalline semiconductor
              compounds and insulators
     * A7125V Electronic structure of organic compounds and polymers
     * A7125W Electronic structure of solid clusters and nanoparticles
     * A7125X Electronic structure of fullerenes and fullerene-related
       materials; intercalation compounds
     
  * A7127 Strongly correlated electron systems
  * A7128 Narrow-band systems, heavy-fermion metals;
       intermediate-valence solids
  * A7130 Metal-insulator transitions and other electronic transitions
  * A7135 Excitons and related phenomena
  * A7136 Polaritons
  * A7138 Polarons and electron-phonon interactions
  * A7145 Collective effects (condensed matter electronic structure)
     * A7145G Exchange, correlation, dielectric and magnetic functions,
              plasmons
     * A7145J Thomas-Fermi model (condensed matter)
     * A7145L Charge-density-wave systems
     * A7145N Calculations of total electronic binding energy

  * A7150 Localized single-particle electronic states
  * A7155 Impurity and defect levels
     * A7155D Impurity and defect levels in metals, semimetals, and
       alloys
     * A7155E Impurity and defect levels in elemental semiconductors
     * A7155F Impurity and defect levels in tetrahedrally bonded
       nonmetals
     * A7155G Impurity and defect levels in II-VI and III-V
       semiconductors
     * A7155H Impurity and defect levels in other nonmetals
     * A7155J Localization in disordered structures


  * A7165 Positron states (condensed matter)
  * A7170 Level splitting and interactions (condensed matter)
     * A7170C Crystal and ligand fields     
     * A7170E Spin-orbit coupling, Zeeman, Stark and strain splitting 
     * A7170G Exchange interactions 
     * A7170J Nuclear states and interactions 
     * A7170M Other bulk localised states

  * A7190 Other topics in electron states of condensed matter

* A7200 Electronic transport in condensed matter
  * A7210 Theory of electronic transport; scattering mechanisms
     * A7210B General formulation of electronic transport theory
     * A7210D Carrier scattering by phonons, magnons, and other   
       nonlocalized excitations
     * A7210F Carrier scattering by point defects, dislocations,
       surfaces, and other imperfections

  * A7215 Electronic conduction in metals and alloys
     * A7215C Electrical and thermal conduction in amorphous and liquid
              metals and alloys
     * A7215E Electrical and thermal conduction in crystalline metals
              and alloys
     * A7215G Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects
              (metals/alloys)
     * A7215H Thermomagnetic effects (metals/alloys)
     * A7215J Thermoelectric effects (metals/alloys)
     * A7215L Relaxation times and mean free paths (metals/alloys)
     * A7215N Collective modes; low-dimensional conductors
     * A7215Q Scattering mechanisms and Kondo effect (metals/alloys)  
     * A7215R Quantum localization (metals/alloys)
  * A7220 Electrical conductivity phenomena in semiconductors and
          insulators
     * A7220D General theory, carrier scattering mechanisms
     * A7220F Low-field transport and mobility; piezoresistance
     * A7220H High-field transport and nonlinear effects
     * A7220J Charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, and
              trapping 
     * A7220M Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects
     * A7220N Thermomagnetic effects (semiconductors/insulators)
     * A7220P Thermoelectric effects 
     
   * A7230 High-frequency effects; plasma effects in electronic
           transport
   * A7240 Photoconduction and photovoltaic effects; photodielectric
           effects
   * A7250 Acoustoelectric effects (electronic transport)
   * A7255 Magnetoacoustic effects (electronic transport)
   * A7260 Mixed conductivity and conductivity transitions
   * A7270 Noise processes and phenomena in electronic transport

   * A7280 Electrical conductivity of specific semiconductors and
       insulators
     * A7280C Electrical conductivity of elemental semiconductors 
     * A7280E Electrical conductivity of II-VI and III-V semiconductors
     * A7280G Electrical conductivity of transition-metal compounds
     * A7280J Electrical conductivity of other crystalline inorganic
               semiconductors
     * A7280L Electrical conductivity of organic compounds and polymers
     * A7280N Electrical conductivity of amorphous and glassy
              semiconductors
     * A7280P Electrical conductivity of liquid semiconductors
     * A7280R Electrical conductivity of fullerenes and related
              materials
     * A7280S Electrical conductivity of insulators
     * A7280T Electrical conductivity of composite materials 
 
  * A7290 Other topics in electronic transport in condensed matter


* A7300 Electronic structure and electrical properties of surfaces,
      interfaces, and thin films
  * A7320 Electronic surface states
     * A7320A Surface states, band structure, electron density of states
     * A7320D Electron states in low-dimensional structures
     * A7320F Weak localization (surface states)
     * A7320H Surface impurity and defect levels; energy levels of
       adsorbed species
     * A7320J Delocalization processes (surface states) 
     * A7320M Collective excitations (surface states)

  * A7325 Surface conductivity and carrier phenomena
  * A7330 Surface double layers, Schottky barriers, and work functions
  * A7335 Mesoscopic systems and quantum interference
     * A7335C Coulomb blockade; quantum tunnelling

  * A7340 Electrical and electronic properties of interfaces
     * A7340B Static electrification
     * A7340C Contact resistance, contact potential, and work functions
     * A7340E Rectification at interfaces
     * A7340G Tunnelling: general (electronic transport)
     * A7340H Quantum Hall effect
     * A7340J Electrical properties of metal-to-metal contacts
     * A7340L Electrical properties of semiconductor-to-semiconductor
              contacts, p-n junctions, and heterojunctions
     * A7340M Electrical properties of semiconductor-electrolyte
              contacts
     * A7340N Electrical properties of metal-nonmetal contacts
     * A7340Q Electrical properties of metal-insulator-semiconductor
              structures
     * A7340R Electrical properties of metal-insulator-metal structures
     * A7340S Electrical properties of metal-semiconductor-metal
               structures
     * A7340T Electrical properties of 
              semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structures
     * A7340V Electrical properties of semiconductor-metal-semiconductor
              structures

  * A7360 Electrical properties of thin films and low-dimensional
       structures
     * A7360D Electrical properties of metals and metallic alloys 
     * A7360F Electronic properties of semiconductor thin films
     * A7360H Electrical properties of insulators 
     * A7360J Electrical properties of elemental semiconductors 
     * A7360L Electrical properties of II-VI and III-V semiconductors
     * A7360N Electrical properties of amorphous and glassy
       semiconductors 
     * A7360P Electrical properties of other inorganic semiconductors
     * A7360R Electrical properties of organic compounds and polymers
     * A7360T Electrical properties of fullerenes and related materials
        
  * A7390 Other topics in electrical properties of surfaces,
       interfaces, and thin films
   
* A7400 Superconductivity
  * A7410 Superconducting critical temperature, occurrence
  * A7420 Theory of superconductivity
     * A7420D Phenomenological and two-fluid superconductivity theories
     * A7420F BCS theory of superconductivity
     * A7420M Other theories of superconductivity

  * A7430 General properties of superconductors
     * A7430C Magnetic properties of superconductors
     * A7430E Thermal and thermodynamic properties of superconductors
     * A7430F Transport properties of superconductors
     * A7430G Superconductor response to electromagnetic fields
     * A7430H Phase diagrams of superconductors   
     * A7430J Electronic structure of superconductors
     * A7430K Phonons in superconductors
     * A7430L Mechanical and acoustic properties of superconductors
     * A7430M Optical properties of superconductors
 
  * A7440 Fluctuations and critical effects in superconductors
  * A7450 Superconductor tunnelling phenomena, proximity effects, and
      Josephson effect
  * A7455 Type-I superconductivity
  * A7460 Type-II superconductivity
     * A7460E Mixed state, H/sub c2/, surface sheath
     * A7460G Flux pinning, flux motion, fluxon-defect interactions
     * A7460J Critical currents in type-II superconductors
     * A7460M Material effects on T/sub c/, K, critical currents in
       type-II superconductors

  * A7465 Insulator-superconductor transition
  * A7470 Superconducting materials
     * A7470B Elemental superconductors
     * A7470C Superconducting A15 compounds and alloys
     * A7470E Superconducting interstitial compounds and alloys
     * A7470F Chevrel phase (ternary molybdenum chalcogenide)
              superconductors
     * A7470H Magnetic superconductors
     * A7470J Superconducting layer structures and intercalation   
              compounds
     * A7470K Organic superconductors
     * A7470M Amorphous, highly disordered, and granular superconductors
     * A7470Q Laves phase (C15) superconductors
     * A7470S Superconducting metastable nonstoichiometric phases
     * A7470T Heavy-fermion superconductors     
     * A7470V Perovskite phase superconductors
     * A7470W Fullerene superconductors
     * A7470Y Other superconducting materials

  * A7475 Superconducting films
  * A7490 Other topics in superconductivity

  
* A7500 Magnetic properties and materials
  * A7510 General theory and models of magnetic ordering
     * A7510D Crystal-field theory and spin Hamiltonians 
     * A7510H Ising and other classical spin models 
     * A7510J Heisenberg and other quantized localized spin models
     * A7510L Band and itinerant models 
     * A7510N Spin-glass models 
 
  * A7520 Diamagnetism and paramagnetism
     * A7520C Diamagnetism and paramagnetism in nonmetals
     * A7520E Diamagnetism and paramagnetism in metals and alloys
     * A7520H Local moment in dilute alloys; Kondo effect, valence
       fluctuations, heavy fermions

  * A7525 Spin arrangements in magnetically ordered materials
  * A7530 Magnetically ordered materials, other intrinsic properties
     * A7530C Magnetic moments and susceptibility in magnetically
              ordered materials
     * A7530D Spin waves in magnetically ordered materials
     * A7530E Exchange and superexchange interactions in magnetically
              ordered materials
     * A7530F Spin-density waves in magnetically ordered materials 
     * A7530G Magnetic anisotropy
     * A7530H Magnetic impurity interactions
     * A7530K Magnetic phase boundaries
     * A7530M Valence fluctuations, Kondo lattice and heavy fermions in
              magnetically ordered materials
     * A7530S Magnetocaloric effect in magnetically ordered materials
     * A7530T Surface magnetism
     * A7530V Enhanced magnetoresistance in bulk magnetic materials

  * A7540 Critical-point effects, specific heats, short-range order
          in magnetic materials
     * A7540C Static properties of magnetic materials
     * A7540G Dynamic properties of magnetic materials
     * A7540M Numerical simulation studies of magnetic materials
      
  * A7550 Studies of specific magnetic materials
     * A7550B Ferromagnetism of Fe and its alloys
     * A7550C Ferromagnetism of nonferrous metals and alloys
     * A7550D Ferromagnetism of nonmetals
     * A7550E Antiferromagnetics
     * A7550G Ferrimagnetics
     * A7550K Amorphous and nanostructured magnetic materials      
     * A7550L Spin glasses (magnetic materials)
     * A7550M Magnetic liquids
     * A7550P Magnetic semiconductors
     * A7550R Magnetism in interface structures
     * A7550S Magnetic recording materials
     * A7550V High coercivity magnetic materials
     
  * A7560 Magnetic domain effects, magnetization curves, and
          hysteresis
     * A7560C Magnetic domain walls and domain structure
     * A7560E Magnetization curves, hysteresis, Barkhausen and related
               effects
     * A7560G High coercivity magnetic materials
     * A7560J Fine-particle magnetic systems
     * A7560L Magnetic aftereffects
     * A7560N Magnetic annealing and temperature-hysteresis effects 
    
  * A7570 Magnetic films and multilayers
     * A7570A Magnetic properties of monolayers and overlayers
     * A7570C Interfacial magnetic properties
     * A7570F Magnetic ordering in multilayers
     * A7570K Domain structure in magnetic films (magnetic bubbles)
     * A7570P Enhanced magnetoresistance in magnetic films and
              multilayers

  * A7580 Magnetomechanical and magnetoelectric effects,
          magnetostriction
  * A7590 Other topics in magnetic properties and materials


* A7600 Magnetic resonances and relaxation in condensed matter;
       Mossbauer effect
  * A7620 General theory of magnetic resonances and relaxation
  * A7630 Electron paramagnetic resonance and relaxation 
     * A7630D EPR of ions and impurities: general
     * A7630F EPR of iron group (3d) ions and impurities (Ti-Cu)
     * A7630H EPR of platinum and palladium group (4d and 5d) ions and
       impurities (Zr-Ag and Hf-Au)
     * A7630K EPR of rare-earth ions and impurities
     * A7630L EPR of other ions and impurities 
     * A7630M EPR of colour centres and other defects
     * A7630P EPR of conduction electrons
     * A7630R EPR of free radicals (condensed matter)
  
  * A7640 Diamagnetic and cyclotron resonances (condensed matter)
  * A7650 Ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and ferrimagnetic
       resonances; spin wave resonance
  * A7660 Nuclear magnetic resonance and relaxation 
     * A7660C Chemical and Knight shifts (condensed matter NMR)
     * A7660E Relaxation effects (condensed matter NMR)
     * A7660G Quadrupole resonance (condensed matter NQR)
     * A7660J Effects of internal magnetic fields (condensed matter NMR)
     * A7660L Spin echoes (condensed matter NMR)
 
  * A7670 Magnetic double resonances and cross effects 
     * A7670D Electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) 
     * A7670E Dynamical nuclear polarization 
     * A7670F Double nuclear magnetic resonance (DNMR) 
     * A7670H Optical double magnetic resonance (ODMR)
     * A7670K Electron double resonance (ELDOR)

  * A7675 Muon spin rotation and relaxation in condensed matter
  * A7680 Mossbauer effect; other gamma-ray spectroscopy in condensed
      matter
  * A7690 Other topics in magnetic resonances and relaxation in
       condensed matter

* A7700 Dielectric properties and materials
  * A7720 Dielectric permittivity
  * A7730 Dielectric polarization and depolarization effects
  * A7740 Dielectric loss and relaxation
  * A7750 Dielectric breakdown and space-charge effects
  * A7755 Dielectric thin films
  * A7760 Piezoelectricity and electrostriction
  * A7770 Pyroelectric and electrocaloric effects
  * A7780 Ferroelectricity and antiferroelectricity
     * A7780B Ferroelectric transitions and Curie point
     * A7780D Ferroelectric domain structure and effects; hysteresis
     * A7780F Ferroelectric switching phenomena
 
  * A7785 Electrical resonances
  * A7790 Other topics in dielectric properties and materials
  
* A7800 Optical properties and condensed matter spectroscopy and
        other interactions of matter with particles and radiation
  * A7820 Optical properties of condensed matter
     * A7820B Optical properties of pure homogeneous materials: general
              theory
     * A7820D Optical constants and parameters (condensed matter)
     * A7820E Optical rotatory power (condensed matter)
     * A7820F Birefringence (condensed matter)
     * A7820H Piezo-, elasto- and acousto-optical effects; photoacoustic
      effect (condensed matter)
     * A7820J Electro-optical effects (condensed matter)
     * A7820L Magneto-optical effects (condensed matter)
     * A7820N Thermo-optical effects (condensed matter)
     * A7820P Photonic band gap (condensed matter)
     * A7820W Other optical properties of condensed matter

  * A7830 Infrared and Raman spectra and scattering 
     * A7830C Infrared and Raman spectra in liquids   
     * A7830E Infrared and Raman spectra in metals 
     * A7830G Infrared and Raman spectra in inorganic crystals
     * A7830J Infrared and Raman spectra in organic crystals
     * A7830L Infrared and Raman spectra in disordered solids
 
  * A7835 Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering; other light scattering
       (condensed matter)
  * A7840 Visible and ultraviolet spectra (condensed matter)
     * A7840D Visible and ultraviolet spectra of liquids
     * A7840E Visible and ultraviolet spectra of elemental
semiconductors
     * A7840F Visible and ultraviolet spectra of tetrahedrally bonded
              nonmetals
     * A7840G Visible and ultraviolet spectra of II-VI and III-V
              semiconductors
     * A7840H Visible and ultraviolet spectra of other nonmetals
     * A7840K Visible and ultraviolet spectra of metals, semimetals, and
              alloys

  * A7845 Stimulated emission (condensed matter)
  * A7847 Ultrafast optical measurements in condensed matter
  * A7850 Impurity and defect absorption in solids
     * A7850E Impurity and defect absorption in insulators
     * A7850G Impurity and defect absorption in semiconductors
     * A7850J Impurity and defect absorption in metals, semimetals, and
              alloys

  * A7855 Photoluminescence (condensed matter)
     * A7855B Photoluminescence in liquids
     * A7855C Photoluminescence in elemental semiconductors
     * A7855D Photoluminescence in tetrahedrally bonded nonmetals
     * A7855E Photoluminescence in II-VI and III-V semiconductors
     * A7855F Photoluminescence in alkali halides
     * A7855H Photoluminescence in other inorganic materials
     * A7855K Photoluminescence in organic materials

  * A7860 Other luminescence spectra and radiative recombination
     * A7860F Electroluminescence (condensed matter)
     * A7860H Cathodoluminescence, ionoluminescence (condensed matter)
     * A7860K Thermoluminescence (condensed matter)
     * A7860M Sonoluminescence, triboluminescence (condensed matter)
     * A7860P Chemiluminescence (condensed matter)

  * A7865 Optical properties of thin films and low-dimensional
       structures
     * A7865E Optical properties of metals and metallic alloys
     * A7865H Optical properties of elemental semiconductors
     * A7865J Optical properties of nonmetallic thin films
     * A7865K Optical properties of II-VI and III-V semiconductors
     * A7865M Optical properties of amorphous and glassy semiconductors
              and insulators 
     * A7865P Optical properties of other inorganic semiconductors and
               insulators 
     * A7865T Optical properties of organic compounds and polymers
     * A7865V Optical properties of fullerenes and related materials

  * A7870 Other interactions of condensed matter with particles and
       radiation   
     * A7870B Positron annihilation (condensed matter)
     * A7870C X-ray scattering (condensed matter)
     * A7870D X-ray absorption and absorption edges 
     * A7870E X-ray emission threshold and fluorescence
     * A7870F Channelling radiation
     * A7870G Microwave and radiofrequency interactions with condensed
              matter

  * A7890 Other topics in optical properties of condensed matter and
      other interactions of matter with particles and radiation


* A7900 Electron and ion emission by liquids and solids; impact
        phenomena
  * A7920 Surface impact phenomena
     * A7920D Laser-surface impact phenomena
     * A7920F Electron-surface impact: Auger emission
     * A7920H Electron-surface impact: secondary emission
     * A7920K Other electron-surface impact phenomena
     * A7920N Atom-, molecule-, and ion-surface impact and interactions
     * A7920R Atomic and molecular beam interactions with surfaces
   
  * A7940 Thermionic emission (from surfaces)
  * A7960 Photoemission and photoelectron spectra (condensed matter)
     * A7960C Photoelectron spectra of clean metals
     * A7960E Photoelectron spectra of semiconductors and insulators
     * A7960G Photoelectron spectra of composite surfaces
  
  * A7970 Field emission and field ionization
  * A7975 Exoelectron emission
  * A7980 Resonance tunnelling
  * A7990 Other topics in emission and impact phenomena in condensed
          matter

A8000 CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND
     TECHNOLOGY
* A8100 Materials science
   details to be added
* A8200 Physical chemistry  
   details to be added
* A8600 Energy research and environmental science 
   details to be added
* A8700 Biophysics, medical physics, and biomedical engineering
   details to be added