# Thermodynamics: Introduction

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## First Law of Thermodynamics

### Important terms

Work done on system, W. Work is computed by original definition: the component of force moving through a distance. Examples in internal combustion engine.

• Crankshaft pushes piston in cylinder to compress gas; increases energy of system.
• Expanding combusted gas pushes cylinder out; decreases energy of system.

Heat absorbed by system, Q. Examples in internal combustion engine.

• Ignited fuel heats system; increasing temperature.
• Cold fuel injected; decreasing temperature

First Law. Energy of system U -- the sum of work done on system W and heat absorbed by system Q -- is conserved, that is, U = W + Q is conserved.

## Ideal Engine (Carnot cycle)

 Heat QH > 0 added at constant TH. Piston moves out: WH < 0 . (1→2) Energy conserved: QH+WH=QL+WL. Work done by system W =WL-WH ⇒ QH=W+QL.

## Efficiency

Reviewing steps in which we ignore work change during heating and cooling and heat changes during work in or work out. In other words, we assume energy is conserved in actual engine.

1. Increases thermal energy QH at high temperature TH
2. Exhausts thermal energy QL at low temperature TL
3. Does work W given by energy conservation:
QH = W + QL.

The efficiency is the work done (W) compared to the total energy input QH.

## More examples

### On the web

 Efficiency = W/ QH (definition) = (QH- QL)/QH (Thermo 1st law; conservation of energy = 1- QL/QH = 1 - TL/TH Q ∝T (coming attraction)

## Otto Cycle

 ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇓ ⇑ ⇒

## Latent Heat

When a material changes phase -- e.g., ice to water or water to steam -- extra energy is required to convert one 1 kg from one phase into another. These are called Latent Heat of Fusion or Latent Heat of Evaporation, respectively.
Fusion Water Mercury Sulfur Nitrogen

If added 1 kg of ice at 0 C to 10 kg of water at 10 C, what is temperature of final mixture?

Ice will melt and form 11 kg of water. The specific heat of water is 4.2 kJ/kg.
345=(10+1)*(10-T)*4.2
or T = 10 - 345/11./4.2 = 2.6 C.