Quadrillion British thermal units (QBTU): Quad ~ EJ.
Electricity. Plant capacity cited in thousand kWh (not s).
Since year ~0.9 104 hours (h) capacity is ~9 TJ.
So million MkWh or 9 EJ or 9 Quad, call it 10 Quad!
Coal, Oil & Gas are often reported in units that reflected how they are delivered for 2003 US and World figures, respectively.
Fortunately can often find energy produced in Quad (EJ). But you have to be careful since also other considerations affected the reporting: efficiency, transmission losses, etc.
How do these estimates look in the world?
N. America, Europe, Asia
|Emerging Economies: Asia|
Middle East, C&S America
|Increasing 2 % per year: (1.02)23 = 1.58.|
|Increasing 3.9 % per year: (1.039)23|
|GDP/Energy 2002-2025 by section:
Mature: 29%; Transitional: 44%; Emerging: 54%
Is this the message?
Emerging economies best leverage their increased energy use.
Late breaking news: NYTimes 28 Sep 05.
"High prices ...[bad news]... for the chemical industry. Natural
gas is both its main fuel and ... raw material..."
"Unlike oil ... a global commodity, gas is ... [regionally]. Liquid natural gas can be shipped ... , but ... expensive ... only 3% ... into the US...."
"Around 2001 [$2/MBTU in 2000], demand began to exceed supply, and gas prices ... soared . ... Then Katrina... gas prices ... around $12."
Text in Chapter 5 stresses exponential growth. Over long periods of time, that is reasonable (say, 100 - 2000 AD). But be careful.