was written as a sort of research report,
summarizing the characteristics of the effective executives that he saw
over the period of about two decades. He concludes that
effectiveness is not inherent to a person but is the result of learning
to do four things: manage time, determine what he can contribute,
making use of subordinates' strengths, and making decisions well.
The book is a discussion of these four things, complete with
copious and cogent examples.
The first principle is that the effective executive (by which he means
not only a CEO but anyone who is responsible for making decisions that
in some way affect the organization) must manage his time. The
purpose of the executive is to note outside trends and adapt his company
to them, but unavoidably he will spend most of his time on internal
matters. The only way to spend less time on internal (and
unimportant to his task) matters is to record what time is spent doing
things and ruthless prune away any tasks that cannot be done by someone
else. Next, make sure that you have large chunks of time (not
necessarily large quantities) to work on the important things and that
you are uninterrupted during that time. One executive, for
instance, scheduled 1.5 hour meetings because that was his attention
span--he could get something accomplished but he didn't waste time after
his attention wandered.
The second principle is asking "what can I contribute?". The
purpose of everyone in the organization is to contribute something and
the effective executive needs to ask what his contribution should be.
What can he do to change the company in a way that will make it
more successful? "Increase profits" does not qualify although
focusing on efficient manufacturing, or low rates of return, or
identifying talented managers might. Merely playing the job of
CEO, expecting wield power and authority are ego boosters, not
The third principle is to use the peoples' strengths and not worry
about their weaknesses. Drucker observes that an organization can
be more effective than one person because each person contributes their
strength but does not contribute their weaknesses. So therefore,
hire for strengths. Do not worry about a person's weaknesses
(unless it prevents them from using their strengths) as they are largely
irrelevant. We all have our weaknesses and people with great
strengths tend to have great weaknesses. Hiring for lack of
weakness results in hiring mediocrity and does not take advantage of one
of the main purposes of an organization.
The fourth principle is the process of decision making. The
executive does not need to make many decisions, but he needs to make
them at a high level. It is the executive's job to determine
whether a problem is a unique situation or a manifestation of a general
trend. If it is the latter, and it is in more cases than we think,
the executive must determine a principle for solving it. Drucker
observed that too many decisions are made on the assumption that the
problem is unique when it is really not. Drucker also argues that
correct decisions cannot be made unless there are a multiplicity of
viewpoints, for only then can one option be compared with the others and
the correct option for the organization's boundary conditions (i.e.
requirements) be selected.
Drucker maintains a very clear understanding of the concepts of
effectiveness and presents these to the reader with concise writing and
pointed examples. The book, in fact, follows the outline of a good
speech to the letter, except that the discussion of the material has
more depth than the length of an oration will permit. The clarity
of thought presented in The Effective
will, without doubt, impart much of Drucker's concepts
to the reader.
The book is clear, concise, with good
examples. Each point is reinforced several times and expanded to
convey a better idea of the area the topic covers. Although the
book may possibly be boring for someone who has already understood the
concepts, as Drucker points out, very few executives have learned the
secret of being effective, so the first-time reader is almost certain to
gain very key insights. And it is the insights that are important
to the book--these are true insights, the sort that are easily put and
yet perfectly applicable.
- Effectiveness must be learned (effective executives have little
in common except these principles)
- Effectiveness requires time management
- No one really knows where their time goes (especially if they
think they do) unless they write it down
- Identifying time wasters
- Eliminate activites that do not produce any results
whatsoever (i.e. time-wasters)
- "The next question is 'Which of the activities on my time log
could not be done by somebody else just as well, if not better?'"
- Eliminate the time that you waste yourself. (This is
best done by asking someone else)
- Fixing time-wasters
- Look for the "recurrent crisis". "A crisis that recurs
a second time is a crisis that must not occur again. ... A
recurrent crisis should always have been foreseen. It can
therefore either be prevented or reduced to a routine which clerks can
manage. The definition of 'routine' is that it makes unskilled
people without judgement capable of doing what it took a near-genius to
be before; for a routine puts down in systematic, step-by-step
form what a very able man learned in surmounting yesterday's crisis. ...
The recurrent crisis is simply a symptom of slovenliness and
laziness." (pp. 41-2)
- A well managed plant is boring; an exciting plant is
- Overstaffing. "If the senior people in the group--and
of course the manager in particular--spend more than a small fraction of
their time, maybe one tenth, on 'problems of human relations,' ... then
the work force is amost certainly too large." (pg. 43)
- "Another common time-waster is malorganization. It's
symptom is an excess of meetings." (p. 44)
- "The last major time waster is malfunction in
information"--either information that is not updated fast enough or in
the wrong form.
- Consolidate time
- We need a fairly large quantum to think about things, and if
you need to deal with people, it takes a reasonably large quantum for
them to think that they had meaningful interaction with you.
- Make sure you aren't disturbed during your time.
- Set deadlines based on the judgement of available
- Ask "what can I contribute?"
- "The focus on contribution turns the executive's attention away
from his own speciality, his own narrow skills, his own department, and
toward the performance of the whole. It turns his attention to the
outside, the only place where there are results. ... To ask, 'What can I
contribute?' is to look for the unused potential in the job. And
what is considered excellent performance in a good many positions is
often but a pale shadow of the job's full potential of contribution."
- To produce contribution, need to have
- communication: generally the subordinate should tell
the superior what he thinks his contribution should be (otherwise he
will probably mis-hear it), although the superior may correct it.
- "The focus on contribution leads to communications sideways
and thereby makes teamwork possible."
- development: both by self and of others. But
either way people grow to what is demanded of them.
- Build on strength's don't worry about weaknesses
- Organizations are created to utilize strength; weaknesses
are irrelevent unless they inhibit exercising your strengths. So
don't fill jobs to minimize weakness but to maximize strengths.
- Do not assume "that jobs are created by nature or men".
Lookout for the impossible job--the one that requires multiple
temperaments or requires unusual strenghts in multiple areas (unlikely
to occur in one person). "The rule is simple: Any job that
has defeated two or three men in succession, even though each had
performed well in his previous assignments, must be assumed unfit for
human beings. It must be redesigned." (p. 79)
- "Make each job demanding an big. It should have
challenge to bring out whatever strength a man may have. It should
have scope so that any strength that is relevant to the task can produce
significant results." (p. 80)
- "Start with what a man can do rather than what a job
requires.' (p. 83) This requires appraisals, but it should
not be the negative sort that are prevalent. Instead:
- "What has he done well?"
- "What, therefore is he likely to be able to do well?"
- "What does he have to learn or to acquire to be able to get
the full benefit from his strength?"
- "If I had a son or daughter, would I be willing to have him
or her work under this person?" Why or why not? (p. 86)
- "To get strength one must put up with weakness." (p. 87)
- Make your bosses strength's productive. "There is nothing
quite as conducive to success as a successful and rapidly promoted
superior." (p. 93)
- "One does not make the strengths of the boss productive by
toadying to him. One does it by starting out with what is right
and presenting it in a form which is accessible to the superior." (p. 93)
- "'What can my boss do really well?' 'What does he need
to know to use his strength?' 'What does he need to get from me to
perform?' [The effective executive] does not worry too much over
what the boss cannot do." (p. 94)
- Do what needs done first.
- "Effective executives do not make a great many decisions.
They concentrate on the important ones. They try to think
through what is strategic and generic, rather than 'solve problems.'"
- Deterimine if the problem is generic
- It might generic to the organization, generic in general but
unique to the organization (e.g. a merger offer), generic but not yet
categorized, or truly unique. It is best if the initial assumption
is that the problem is generic.
- If it is, define "specifications which the answer to the
problem had to satisfy" (i.e. boundary conditions)
- "The thinking through of what is 'right', that is, the solution
which will fully satisfy the specifications before attention is given to the
compromises, adaptations, and concessions needed to make the decision
- "The building into the decision of the action to carry it out."
- "The 'feedback' which tests the validity and effectiveness of
the decision against the actual course of events."
- Is the decision really necessary? What will happen if
nothing is done?
- "Decisions of the kind the executive has to make are not made
well by acclamation. ... The first rule in decision-making is that one
does not make a decision unless there is disagreement." (p. 148)
Copyright © 2003 by Geoffrey