Quantum anomalies, topology and external magnetic fields induce novel effects in transport and relativistic hydrodynamics. In particular, the local imbalance between left- and right-handed fermions in the presence of a magnetic field induces the spatial separation of positive and negative electric charges ("the Chiral Magnetic Effect").
In heavy ion collisions, this effect can be detected through the
separation of positive and negative hadrons with respect to the
reaction plane. There is a recent evidence for charge separation from the experiments
at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider. The
effect has analogs in condensed matter physics (quantum wires,
graphene, topological insulators, and Weyl semimetals), and in
astrophysics and cosmology.
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