6810: 1094 Session 8

Online handout: plots of damped oscillations; online listings: filename_test.cpp, diffeq_pendulum.cpp, GnuplotPipe class

Strings and Things

The filename_test.cpp code has examples of the use and manipulation of C++ strings, including building filenames the way we do stream output. Be careful NOT to put << endl when creating filenames.

  1. Using make_filename_test, compile and link filename_test.cpp and run it. Look at the output files and the printout of the code to see how it works.
  2. Modify the code so that there is a loop running from 0 to 3 with index variable j. For each j, open a file with a name that includes the current value of j. Write "This is file j", where "j" here is the current value, into each file and then close it. Did you succeed?

  3. Modify the code to input a double named alpha and open a filename with 3 digits of alpha as part of the name. (E.g., something like pendulum_alpha5.22_plot.dat if alpha = 5.21934.) Output something appropriate to the file. Did it work?

Upgrades from the diffeq_oscillation to diffeq_pendulum code

Damped (Undriven) Pendulum

The pendulum modeled here has the analog of the viscous damping: Ff = −b*v, where v(t) is the velocity, that was used in session 7. The damping parameter is called alpha here.

  1. Use make_diffeq_pendulum to compile and link diffeq_pendulum.cpp. Run it while taking a look at the printout of the code. It should look a lot like diffeq_oscillations.cpp, with different parameter names. Run it with the default parameters, noting the real-time phase-space plot. There is also an output file diffeq_pendulum.dat.
  2. Modify the code so that the output file includes two digits of the variable alpha in the name. Did you succeed?

  3. Generate the analogs of the four phase-space plots on the handout but with pendulum variables and initial conditions theta_dot0=0 (at rest) and theta0 such that you are in the simple harmonic oscillator regime (note that theta is in radians). Set f_ext=0 (no external driving force) and then do four runs with four values of alpha corresponding to undamped, underdamped, critically damped, and overdamped (convert from the conditions on b discussed in the background notes). What values of theta0 and alpha did you use?

Damped, Driven Pendulum

This is a quick exercise to look at transients.

  1. Restart the program so that we use the defaults. There is both damping and an external driving force, with frequency w_ext = 0.689. The initial plot is from t=0 to t=100. Run it. The green points are plotted once every period of the external force. What good are they?

  2. Note that it seems to settle down to a periodic orbit after a while. Plot ("by hand" with gnuplot) theta vs. t from the output file diffeq_pendulum.dat and see how long it takes to become periodic.

  3. Run the code again with "plot_start" set to the time you just found. Have you gotten rid of the transients? What is the frequency of the asymptotic theta(t)?

Looking for Chaos

Now we want to explore more of the parameter space and look at different structures. In Section f of the Session 7 notes there is a list of characteristic structures that can be found in phase space, with sample pictures in Figure 1.

  1. In phase space, a fixed point is a (zero-dimensional) point that "attracts" the time-development of a system. By this we mean that many (or all) initial conditions end up at the same point in phase space. The clearest case is a damped, undriven system like a pendulum, which ends up at theta=0 and zero angular velocity no matter how it starts. If the steady-state trajectory in phase space is a closed (one-dimensional) curve, then we call it a limit cycle.

  2. Try some prescribed values for the pendulum. You will need to adjust "plot_start" and extend the plot time (increase "t_end" and "plot_end"). Try the first three combinations in this table:
    period-1 limit cycle0.00.00.6890.80.0
    chaotic pendulum0.20.90.54 −0.80.1234

    Can you tell how many "periods" the limit cycles have from the graphs? How might you identify whether a function of time f(t) is built from one, two, three, ... frequencies?

  3. One characteristic of chaos is an "exponential sensitivity to initial conditions." For the last combination, vary the initial conditions very slightly (e.g., change x0 by 0.01 or 0.001); what happens?

Armadillo linear algebra library (Do this on Linux!)

Here we'll use the Armadillo library as an example of how to install a personal copy of a library and set up a makefile appropriately to use it. We'll try some basic examples and see how to use it as an alternative to GSL in the Hamiltonian class.

  1. Installing Armadillo. Follow these instructions but ask if something goes wrong.
    1. Create a subdirectory called my_armadillo in your 6810 directory on Linux.
    2. Download from http://arma.sourceforge.net/download.html the latest Armadillo tarball (named something like armadillo-#.###.#.tar.gz) into my_armadillo and unpack it with tar xfvz armadillo-#.###.#.tar.gz (substitute for the #'s appropriately).
    3. Go into the resulting directory (named armadillo-#.###.#) and look at README.txt. Give the command pwd to find the full path to this directory; we'll need to use it several times so I'll call it <path-to-Armadillo>. When I tested it, my <path-to-Armadillo> was:
    4. Now type (with returns after each command!) cmake . (note the period), then make, then make install DESTDIR=. (note the period again). This first creates a makefile with cmake, then compiles the library, than installs it in the same directory (we could put it somewhere else by replacing the last period by a path to another directory). Did this seem to work?

  2. Testing Armadillo. Go to the session_08 directory and edit section 3. of make_armadillo_tests to prepare it for your installation.
    1. We need to link to three libraries. After LIBS=   add    -larmadillo -llapack -lblas
    2. We need to set the path to the Armadillo library. After LDFLAGS= add
    3. We need to set the path to the Armadillo headers. After CFLAGS= -g -O2 add
    4. Now try to compile and link armadillo_tests. It should work to create the .x file, but fail when you try to run armadillo_tests.x. The problem is that you need to set the path to the Armadillo library. At the terminal prompt, type:
          setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH <path-to-Armadillo>
      if you are using tcsh. If you are using bash (type echo $SHELL to check), type:
          export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=<path-to-Armadillo>
      Now it should work!
    5. Look at the code and play a bit (e.g., modify the examples). Then add code to solve:
          x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 = 2
          2x1 − 3x2 + 4x3 = 5
          x1 + 4x2 − 2x3 = −2
      as converted to the matrix problem Ax = b. What is the result for the solution vector x?

    You can browse the online documentation for other examples of using the Armadillo library.

  3. Armadillo for the Hamiltonian class. An alternative version of eigen_tridiagonal_class.cpp, called eigen_tridiagonal_class_armadillo.cpp, uses Armadillo as an alternative to GSL.
    1. The diff file1 file2 command can be used to show all of the line-by-line differences between two files file1 and file2. [See http://www.computerhope.com/unix/udiff.htm for more details on diff. Type man diff to see all of the (many) options.] Use diff to compare the two eigen_tridiagonal cpp files (both are in session08.zip). Why are there so few differences? What has been hidden?

    2. Look at the ArmadilloHamilonian header and cpp files, looking up the functions in the Armadillo documentation (see the comments). Which elements of the class do you not understand?

    3. Edit make_eigen_tridiagonal_class_armadillo to use your personal Armadillo library and compile, link, and run eigen_tridiagonal_class_armadillo. Compile, link, and run the GSL version to create another .dat file and use eigen_tridiagonal_comparison.plt to compare the outputs. Are they the same? Is this great, or what?

6810: 1094 Session 8. Last modified: 08:49 am, February 20, 2017.